PDF | This paper examines the contribution of Leonardo of Pisa [Fibonacci] to in the mathematics of finance were stimulated by the commercial revolution in. PDF | 2+ hours read | The development of a well-adapted financial system was a main part of the successful Swedish economic modernisation in the latter half of. Read The Financial Revolution in England PDF - A Study in the Development of Public Credit, by P.G.M. Dickson Routledge | Peter.

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The merits of a financial revolution: public finance, – Marjolein 't Hart. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the . Download This Paper Open PDF in Browser. Add Paper to My Goetzmann, William N., Fibonacci and the Financial Revolution (March ). NBER Working . Peter Dickson's important study of the origins and development of the system of public borrowing which enabled Great Britain to emerge as a.

However, we must test the spirit the way Jesus did in Matthew chapter 7. Jesus first tells us not to judge, saying that we will be judged in the same manner in which we have judged others. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit; neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.

Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them Matthew KJV, emphasis added. The test for any ministry is to determine if it has the same fruit as the ministry of the Lord Jesus whom they serve. And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the gospel,and healing every where Luke KJV, emphasis added.

There is the test! Is there teaching?

The Swedish Financial Revolution

Preaching the gospel of the Kingdom? Are lives being changed and affected for Christ? Has the ministry stood the test of time, or has it been cut down by God? Remember, He is the only one who should have a saw. God, as I said in the Introduction, uses imperfect vessels; therefore, we can always find fault with any ministry, including mine. Ministers make mistakes too, just like you do. However, God can still use anyone, even as He still uses the brother who wrote these unity-breaking words of error.

Notice I am not mentioning his name! Just another thought here before we move on. The subject of money and prosperity has been and continues to be a major area that the enemy targets to break our unity in Christ! I could write a whole book on this subject itself.

We should never tear down another ministry while praying that God bless our own. Whatsoever you sow, you shall reap, and the same manner in which you judge, you shall be judged.

How about you? Are you walking worthy of your calling? All of us, it seems, have fallen down in this area at one time or another. I know I have! Hmm…talk amongst yourselves! Now back to the subject at hand. They are out there! Few believers would actually recognize their names because God does not bless their ministries unless you consider getting poorer a blessing to the poverty theologist.

They may succeed for a time, but then they come crashing down. Understand that the true prosperity teacher seeks personal prosperity as the main goal, not prosperity for the advancement of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. I remember two prosperity teachers in the s who gained a lot of followers. But then, God got out the saw. Today, they are nowhere to be found. It is God who is responsible for judging a ministry or a minister.

If you have questions about a ministry, and God is blessing them, then let God handle it! Most Christians will find themselves on the line somewhere in between the poverty and prosperity theologies. If we look at the whole Scripture, we find that stewardship theology combines the elements of truth from the other two theologies. Simply stated, stewardship theology says that possessions are privileges, that they are not our own,and that prosperity is the result of faithfully administering our talents see Matt.

Our faithfulness to what? Faithfulness to God and to the process He has given us in the Word for handling our money and accumulating wealth for His purposes.

This takes discipline! This takes knowledge!

What do I mean? One of the main messages of the Bible relative to money is taught by the great teacher Himself. It is, after all, found in the passage where Jesus talks about laying up treasures in Heaven instead of here on earth. It was not until later in life, however, that I realized that this verse is speaking to all of us.

If you are faced with an electric bill, the need for groceries, a better car, or paying the rent to Old Snidely Whiplash, where do you think your focus is if you do not have the money?

Is it on improving your relationship with the Lord, or on sharing Christ with that friend, neighbor, or coworker? Why do you think programs at your church are canceled? It is usually because there is either a lack of money, or a lack of people, or both. If people are in bondage to debt or to the pursuit of a living, they not only cannot give, but neither do they have the time or the focus to be involved in the ministry efforts.

Which master are we then serving—God or money?

Story of change

A second important message of the Bible is: Bondage to debt is bad. Anyone out there identify with this? If you have ever owed money, you know what this is talking about. The Church today is in bondage to financial debt, individually and corporately.

Christ calls us to evangelism, yet we spend our time on worldly temporal things! The most important message in the Bible regarding finances simply put is this: It is not ours!

The fact is, according to Scripture, everything belongs to God! Think of something that does not belong to God.

The fact is, whatever we have is His. We are simply the custodians or the stewards of His possessions. So many of us think that what we have is ours. Listen, that viewpoint is not biblical! We need to get our minds out of ownership and into stewardship! I personally understand this concept. Let me illustrate it for you. I have been a financial advisor for years. Even though I manage it and make decisions according to the goals and directives of my clients, I never think of it as mine.

I am responsible with it, but I am mentally and emotionally detached from its ownership. Rick is the first to admit that he never expected the book to be the success that it has been.

The Purpose Driven Life generated sales of about a million books a month and generated substantial royalties paid to Pastor Rick and his wife, Kay.

Working Papers & Publications

Rick and Kay, because they knew the Word, recognized Who the source of the blessing was and Whose book royalties they really were. They were therefore led to reinvest those into the Kingdom to further advance the gospel. The Holy Spirit led them to bless and again plant seed in the ministry in which they have faithfully served through some difficult financial times since Rick now continues serving as pastor without pay.

The same stewardship and generosity they exhibited before their blessing continues as they continue to tithe and give generously to the work of the Kingdom, just as the Word of God teaches us.

I believe God used and blessed Rick and Kay because they had shown Him so clearly they were prepared to handle it…His way!

God will not give us a blessing we are not prepared to handle or will not handle according to His directives. How we handle our money through the lean times will show how we will handle the money through the blessing times.

How we think of the money during lean times will be how we think about money during the blessing times. We need to think of the money that God has given us to manage as His, and to manage it according to His directives in ways that advance His Kingdom.

He wrote the Financial Manual with more than 2, financial verses in it! When Jesus taught through parables, over half of them dealt with money and possessions, and one is especially hard-hitting to the Body of Christ today.

Come with me to the next chapter, sit back, strap on your safety belt, and get ready for a lesson taught by Jesus Himself. Oh, how I love Him! P lease get out your Financial Manuals and turn to Luke chapter 19, verses 11 through I love reading it, studying it, and letting God reveal things through it. That means my Lord Jesus Christ spoke the words I am reading! Red gives those words some level of credibility—the words of the Great Teacher, the Son of the God who created all things, and the Savior of the world!

In this particular passage from Luke, except for the introduction in verse 11, all the words are red! All are the spoken words of Christ!

While they were listening to this,He went on to tell them a parable, because He was near Jerusalem and the people thought that the kingdom of God was going to appear at once. So he called ten of his servants and gave them ten minas.

Then he sent for the servants to whom he had given the money, in order to find out what they had gained with it. I was afraid of you, because you are a hard man. You take out what you did not put in and reap what you did not sow. You knew, did you, that I am a hard man, taking out what I did not put in,and reaping what I did not sow? It is interesting to note that Jesus told this parable immediately after a man exhibited his faith in Him by making a change in the way he handled his money.

Zacchaeus, the dishonest tax collector, proclaimed his belief in Jesus and subsequently gave evidence of that profession by becoming faithful in his finances. Zacchaeus stood up after dinner and declared his faith in Christ; then he gave evidence of that faith through his finances. He promised to change his dishonest ways and to make restitution.

In fact, they believed it was Kingdom eve! Yes, they believed that Jesus would head into Jerusalem, rally the Jews, defeat the Romans, and send them home packing. What a deal! Even the tax collectors were now listening to Jesus. The disciples thought they were really on a roll! Imagine how you would feel if even the IRS was on your side! Jesus knew what they were thinking and took the opportunity to teach them that the Kingdom was not to be established at this time because there was still work to be done!

In this story, Jesus spoke of a man of noble birth who was traveling to a distant land to have himself crowned king. Once appointed king, he would return. Does this ring a bell? Who was soon going away to have Himself crowned King? Yes, Jesus was! He was talking about Himself here in this parable. Do not forget this point as we go on in the text. He needed someone to oversee his affairs and to manage his estate. Note here that the master gave each of these ten servants, equal amounts.

That means that each of them had equal ability to be successful with the money. The Master gives each one the same ability and also gives them instructions on how to put it to work. They were given instructions on what to do,and the master expected them to be successful. That is why He, as we shall see, will punish the unsuccessful ones. We have the ability to be successful, and with the proper instruction and training, we can be successful. The Master expects it! In verse 14, Jesus warned that He, the Messiah was going to be rejected, just as the nobleman in the illustration was rejected by the people as their king.

Despite the rejection of the people, the nobleman was anointed king in a distant land. Now in order to be anointed king, there must be someone who has a greater authority that qualifies him to anoint a king—usually the reigning king, or a spiritual authority.

From financial exclusion to financial revolution: the story of mobile money

It was usually the father king of the newly anointed son king. Such was the case here. Jesus was going away to have Himself anointed King by the only authority who could do so—the God of the universe, His Father. Jesus, though rejected, was made King, and He is ruling and reigning with His Father right now. But He is coming back! In much the same way, the world does not want to accept Jesus as Lord of this world.

As the Bible says, every knee will bow. It will not be a day for opinions, let me assure you! In the light of the times and biblical prophecy, that day is coming soon! What have you done with the money I gave to you, and in specific, what have you gained?

Is this a time of accountability? Jesus not only informed them that the time to set up the Kingdom was not near and that there was work to be done, but also that there would be a time of accounting regarding the use and growth of the assets of His earthly Kingdom.

You have to take it up with Jesus. The first servant reported a growth of 1, percent. I think this guy must now work for a major mutual fund company in the aggressive growth category. The master was pleased and gave the servant a reward. The servant was trustworthy in a small matter; consequently, he was put in charge of 10 cities in the kingdom. I guess we might call him the President!

Then in came number 2, a more conservative money manager with only a percent return. He rewarded this servant with charge over 5 cities. Notice, the master rewarded responsibility according to the ability shown. There is a principle being taught here about how to increase our wealth. God rewards faithfulness in small things by increasing our blessings. Poverty theologians, if you are out there, this blows your theology right out the window!

Jesus talking here! Put the money to work until I come back! The new president and new governor had proven the master right! Then in walked number 3. I hid it so I would not lose it. Fear—the tool of the devil! You know fear—False Evidence Appearing Real! That which we fear, we also empower!

The Bible tells us that the enemy has no power over us. Fears that cause disbelief are enemies to spiritual joys! They prevent us from achieving what the Master intended and from attaining the purpose in our lives for which we have been called.

The master was displeased and told Brother Hanky that he was judged by his own words. Brother Hanky feared the judgment of the master and did not do as he was told because he was afraid of losing the mina.

Ironically, it was the use of human reasoning instead of obedience that caused this servant to be punished. The people were amazed. He told them that He would give more to those who had been successful in managing his affairs, but he would not entrust more to those who had little success.

So does our Master. Think of this: I as a financial advisor manage investment portfolios. Imagine that I manage your investments. Year after year, you come in to see me and I confess that I have not been diligent with your money.

I have been so busy, and I just have not had time to review and put any effort into your portfolio. You bet you would! Well, according to Jesus, so did this master!

My Lord provides for us, loves us, and wants to bless us with prosperity. That is the way I understand Him! He does want to bless us, and He wants us to succeed. That is why He has given us instructions in His Word on how to succeed—over 2, verses!

Success is the fruit of obedience to His financial instructions. Have you read them? Do you know them? Fortunately, the difference with our Master is that He always gives us a chance to restore ourselves. Poor money managers can become good money managers. Stingy ones can become generous. This speaks of the judgment of unbelievers, those who have not made Jesus Lord of their lives, which occurs when the Lord sets up His Kingdom!

If you are not sure whether or not you will be part of that judgment, we will talk more about this subject in Chapter 18 and you can be sure of so great a salvation that the Lord Jesus provides.

The parable ends, but what is missing? Listen, this is BIG! Remember, there were ten servants to whom the master gave each a mina. Three had their time of accounting. But what about the other seven? What happened to them? How were they found faithful? Listen, this is important! Seven is the number used throughout Scripture by God to signify fulfillment or completeness; in essence, all things being done and in order.

Those seven servants represent us—all the servants of the Master who have yet to experience their time of accounting. I too have been a Brother Hanky. Perhaps you have just declared yourself a Brother Hanky! You may have been unfaithful with your mina because you have been afraid to step out in faith and do things the way the Master has instructed you. You may have never read His instructions and applied biblical principles to the handling of your finances.

The good news is that it does not have to remain that way. Christ has transformed other areas of your life; have you also allowed Him in your checkbook? This paper surveys the phenomenal transformation of banking and finance, public debt, and monetary regimes during —37, a period of great political instability in Chinese history.

To understand why growth in these strategic sectors occurred, I highlight the role of the institutional nexus of Western treaty ports with Shanghai being the most important and China Maritime Customs service, a relatively autonomous tax bureaucracy. My new interpretation on the importance of this mechanism sheds new light on the role of Chinese political institutions, the impact of the West and the ongoing Great Divergence debate.

Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Debin Ma Corresponding Author E-mail address: My thanks also go out to the editors of this Journal, Andrew Seltzer, Dan Li, and an anonymous referee.

I alone remain responsible for the errors. First published: Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.However, money and material possessions are among the most frequently discussed topics in the Bible.

He wants to use the light of obedience to show us the way! You can also transfer money directly to others. Thus, political goals could be pursued through the downloading and selling of shares. So many of us think that what we have is ours. If they were to be taxed at such a level, the rebellion would very likely have spread. Funding public expenditures through loans embroiled the joint-stock companies in politics and in the struggle between Whig and Tory parties.