of various chapters for the benefit of students, and (iii) every page of the book has been read very carefully so as to improve its C.R. KOTHARI. May Research Methodology in all disciplines of various universities. It is hoped that the. by Kothari, C. R. Research Methodology, A step-by-step guide for beginners. Pages·· MB·31, Downloads. 18 Research methodology and practice evaluation What is evaluation? Pdfdrive:hope Give books away. first of all iwant to say thank u very very much. and want to appreciate you for contributing ur knowledge in the field research. it is really a great thing someone .

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1 C.R. Kothari, “Research Methodology Methods & Techniques”, Second Edition, . has been required, for example one direct resource (book) about auditing. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2nd ed.) by C.R. Kothari. Read online, or download in secure PDF format. The applications of research. Types of research. The research journey . The research process. The chapters in the book in relation to the.

D All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention is a famous Hudson Maxim in context of which the significance of research can well be understood. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times.

The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, governments budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs.

The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequences of each of these alternatives.

Meir, William T. Newell and Harold L. Dazier, Simulation in Business and Economics, p. Research Methodology Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the countrys existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions.

The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence services are matters requiring research. Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nations resources.

Another area in government, where research is necessary, is collecting information on the economic and social structure of the nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place. Collecting such statistical information is by no means a routine task, but it involves a variety of research problems. These day nearly all governments maintain large staff of research technicians or experts to carry on this work.

Thus, in the context of government, research as a tool to economic policy has three distinct phases of operation, viz. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions.

Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for downloading, production and sales. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimisation or of profit maximisation or what can be termed as optimisation problems.

Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is concerned with the determination of motivations underlying the consumer market behaviour. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for taking business decisions. Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business.

Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limits of its projected capacity. Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy these days. Business budgeting, which ultimately results in a projected profit and loss account, is based mainly on sales estimates which in turn depends on business research.

Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production and investment programmes can be set up around which are grouped the downloading and financing plans. Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner.

Research in social sciences is concerned both with knowledge for its own sake and with knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. This double emphasis is perhaps especially appropriate in the case of social science.

On the one hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of principles that make possible the understanding and prediction of the whole range of human interactions. On the other hand, because of its social orientation, it is increasingly being looked to for practical guidance in solving immediate problems of human relations. Cook, Research Methods in Social Relations, p. Research Methodology: An Introduction In addition to what has been stated above, the significance of research can also be understood keeping in view the following points: a To those students who are to write a masters or Ph.

Thus, research is the fountain of knowledge for the sake of knowledge and an important source of providing guidelines for solving different business, governmental and social problems. It is a sort of formal training which enables one to understand the new developments in ones field in a better way. Research techniques refer to the behaviour and instruments we use in performing research operations such as making observations, recording data, techniques of processing data and the like.

Research methods refer to the behaviour and instruments used in selecting and constructing research technique. For instance, the difference between methods and techniques of data collection can better be understood from the details given in the following chart Type Methods Techniques Recording of notes, Content analysis, Tape and Film listening and analysis.

Statistical compilations and manipulations, reference and abstract guides, contents analysis. Observational behavioural scales, use of score cards, etc.

Interactional recording, possible use of tape recorders, photo graphic techniques. Recording mass behaviour, interview using independent observers in public places. Identification of social and economic background of respondents. Use of attitude scales, projective techniques, use of sociometric scales. Interviewer uses a detailed schedule with open and closed questions.

Interviewer focuses attention upon a given experience and its effects.

Small groups of respondents are interviewed simultaneously. Used as a survey technique for information and for discerning opinion; may also be used as a follow up of questionnaire. Cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, longitudinal collection of data of intensive character.

Use of audio-visual recording devices, use of observers, etc. Library i Analysis of historical Research records ii Analysis of documents 2.

Field i Non-participant direct Research observation ii Participant observation iii Mass observation iv v vi vii viii ix Mail questionnaire Opinionnaire Personal interview Focused interview Group interview Telephone survey x Case study and life history 3. Laboratory Small group study of random Research behaviour, play and role analysis From what has been stated above, we can say that methods are more general.

It is the methods that generate techniques.

However, in practice, the two terms are taken as interchangeable and when we talk of research methods we do, by implication, include research techniques within their compass. Research Methodology use in performing research operations. In other words, all those methods which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problem are termed as research methods.

Since the object of research, particularly the applied research, it to arrive at a solution for a given problem, the available data and the unknown aspects of the problem have to be related to each other to make a solution possible. Keeping this in view, research methods can be put into the following three groups: 1. In the first group we include those methods which are concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution; 2.

The second group consists of those statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns; 3. The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained. Research methods falling in the above stated last two groups are generally taken as the analytical tools of research.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why.

Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not.

All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. For example, an architect, who designs a building, has to consciously evaluate the basis of his decisions, i. Similarly, in research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented.

He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also. From what has been stated above, we can say that research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology.

The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others.

Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted, why particular technique of analysing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.

The two terms, research and scientific method, are closely related. Research, as we have already stated, can be termed as an inquiry into the nature of, the reasons for, and the consequences of any particular set of circumstances, whether these circumstances are experimentally controlled or recorded just as they occur.

Further, research implies the researcher is interested in more than particular results; he is interested in the repeatability of the results and in their extension to more complicated and general situations. In this context, Karl Pearson writes, The scientific method is one and same in the branches of science and that method is the method of all logically trained minds the unity of all sciences consists alone in its methods, not its material; the man who classifies facts of any kind whatever, who sees their mutual relation and describes their sequences, is applying the Scientific Method and is a man of science.

The ideal of science is to achieve a systematic interrelation of facts. Scientific method attempts to achieve this ideal by experimentation, observation, logical arguments from accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying proportions. Further, logic develops the consequences of such alternatives, and when these are compared with observable phenomena, it becomes possible for the researcher or the scientist to state which alternative is most in harmony with the observed facts.

All this is done through experimentation and survey investigations which constitute the integral parts of scientific method. Experimentation is done to test hypotheses and to discover new relationships.

If any, among variables. But the conclusions drawn on the basis of experimental data are generally criticized for either faulty assumptions, poorly designed experiments, badly executed experiments or faulty interpretations. As such the researcher must pay all possible attention while developing the experimental design and must state only probable inferences. The purpose of survey investigations may also be to provide scientifically gathered information to work as a basis for the researchers for their conclusions.

The scientific method is, thus, based on certain basic postulates which can be stated as under: 1.

Research Methodology Book by C.R. Kothari

It relies on empirical evidence; It utilizes relevant concepts; It is committed to only objective considerations; It presupposes ethical neutrality, i. It results into probabilistic predictions; 6. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication; 7. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories. Mensing, Statistics in Research , p.

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In fact, importance of knowing the methodology of research or how research is done stems from the following considerations: i For one who is preparing himself for a career of carrying out research, the importance of knowing research methodology and research techniques is obvious since the same constitute the tools of his trade. The knowledge of methodology provides good training specially to the new research worker and enables him to do better research.

It helps him to develop disciplined thinking or a bent of mind to observe the field objectively. Hence, those aspiring for careerism in research must develop the skill of using research techniques and must thoroughly understand the logic behind them. In other words, we can state that the knowledge of research methodology is helpful in various fields such as government or business administration, community development and social work where persons are increasingly called upon to evaluate and use research results for action.

Accordingly, it enables use to make intelligent decisions concerning problems facing us in practical life at different points of time. Thus, the knowledge of research methodology provides tools to took at things in life objectively. The knowledge of methodology helps the consumer of research results to evaluate them and enables him to take rational decisions.

AII Before embarking on the details of research methodology and techniques, it seems appropriate to present a brief overview of the research process. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps. The chart shown in Figure 1.

But such activities overlap continuously rather than following a strictly prescribed sequence. At times, the first step determines the nature of the last step to be undertaken. If subsequent procedures have not been taken into account in the early stages, serious difficulties may arise which may even prevent the completion of the study. One should remember that the various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive; nor they are separate and distinct. They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to be constantly anticipating at each step in the research process the requirements of the subsequent steps.

However, the following order concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process: 1 formulating the research problem; 2 extensive literature survey; 3 developing the hypothesis; 4 preparing the research design; 5 determining sample design; 6 collecting the data; 7 execution of the project; 8 analysis of data; 9 hypothesis testing; 10 generalisations and interpretation, and 11 preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i.

A brief description of the above stated steps will be helpful. Formulating the research problem: There are two types of research problems, viz. At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, i.

Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved. Then, the feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus, constitutes the first step in a scientific enquiry. Essentially two steps are involved in formulating the research problem, viz.

The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss it with ones own colleagues or with those having some expertise in the matter.

In an academic institution the researcher can seek the help from a guide who is usually an experienced man and has several research problems in mind. Often, the guide puts forth the problem in general terms and it is up to the researcher to narrow it down and phrase the problem in operational terms. In private business units or in governmental organisations, the problem is usually earmarked by the administrative agencies with whom the researcher can discuss as to how the problem originally came about and what considerations are involved in its possible solutions.

The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself acquainted with the selected problem. He may review two types of literaturethe conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories, and the empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier which are similar to the one proposed. The basic outcome of this review will be the knowledge as to what data and other materials are available for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his own research problem in a meaningful context.

After this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms i. This task of formulating, or defining, a research problem is a step of greatest importance in the entire research process. The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously for that will help discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones.

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Care must, however, be taken to verify the objectivity and validity of the background facts concerning the problem. Professor W.

Neiswanger correctly states that Research Methodology: An Introduction 13 the statement of the objective is of basic importance because it determines the data which are to be collected, the characteristics of the data which are relevant, relations which are to be explored, the choice of techniques to be used in these explorations and the form of the final report. If there are certain pertinent terms, the same should be clearly defined along with the task of formulating the problem. In fact, formulation of the problem often follows a sequential pattern where a number of formulations are set up, each formulation more specific than the preceeding one, each one phrased in more analytical terms, and each more realistic in terms of the available data and resources.

Extensive literature survey: Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph. At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to.

Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc. In this process, it should be remembered that one source will lead to another. The earlier studies, if any, which are similar to the study in hand should be carefully studied. A good library will be a great help to the researcher at this stage. Development of working hypotheses: After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences.

As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research. They also affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in the analysis of data and indirectly the quality of data which is required for the analysis. In most types of research, the development of working hypothesis plays an important role.

Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. The role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track. It sharpens his thinking and focuses attention on the more important facets of the problem. It also indicates the type of data required and the type of methods of data analysis to be used.

How does one go about developing working hypotheses?


The answer is by using the following approach: a Discussions with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking a solution; b Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem for possible trends, peculiarities and other clues; c Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems; and d Exploratory personal investigation which involves original field interviews on a limited scale with interested parties and individuals with a view to secure greater insight into the practical aspects of the problem.

Thus, working hypotheses arise as a result of a-priori thinking about the subject, examination of the available data and material including related studies and the counsel of experts and interested parties. Working hypotheses are more useful when stated in precise and clearly defined terms. It may as well be remembered that occasionally we may encounter a problem where we do not need working 14 Research Methodology hypotheses, specially in the case of exploratory or formulative researches which do not aim at testing the hypothesis.

But as a general rule, specification of working hypotheses in another basic step of the research process in most research problems. The other salient feature of this revised edition, subject contents have been developed and restructured at several places. New problems have also been added in various chapters. Adoption of appropriate methodology is an essential characteristic of quality research studies irrespective of the discipline with which they are related.

The present book provides the basic tenets of methodological research so that researchers may become familiar with the art of using research methods and techniques. The book contains introductory explanations of several quantitative methods enjoying wide use in social sciences.

It covers a fairly wide range, related to Research Methodology.

The presentations are uniformly economical and cogent. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant. The book can be taken as a well-organised guide for researchers whose methodological background is not extensive. The book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook for social science students of all Indian universities. It will also serve as a text for the students of M. Phil, Management, and students of various institutes. It will serve all practitioners doing research of one form or other in a general way.Once the nature of the problem has been clearly understood.

As a result many researches do not serve the purpose for which they are undertaken. Once the problem is formulated.

They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to be constantly anticipating at each step in the research process the requirements of the subsequent steps. The clustering approach can. Discussions with such persons should not only be confined to the formulation of the specific problem at hand.

The design can be represented thus: