From SAS® Macro Programming Made Easy, Third Edition. Full book available for download here. Page 3. iv. Displaying Macro Variable. Processing a SAS Program That Contains Macro Language. From SAS® Macro Programming Made Easy, Third Edition. Full book available for download here. Whether you're looking to become certified, land a job, or increase your skills, you'll benefit from SAS Macro Programming Made Easy, Third Edition.
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This book provides beginners with a thorough foundation in SAS macro programming. The macro facility is a popular part of SAS. Macro programming is a. SAS Macro Programming Made Easy, Third Edition - Michele M. Burlew. again. Part 1: Understanding the Concepts and Features of Macro. This book provides beginners with a thorough foundation in SAS macro pabushobupchild.tk macro facility is a popular part of SAS. Macro programming is a .
Special thanks to the fine production team at SAS, who took my rough words and buffed and polished them into a book I am proud of. Thanks to Ed Huddleston, copyeditor, Candy Farrell, technical publishing specialist, and Patrice Cherry, designer, for making this a high-quality and attractive text.
Thanks to Liz Villani and Shelly Goodin for helping me to get the word out about this book. Finally, I owe huge thanks to Judy Whatley, acquisitions editor, for sticking with me from day one on this effort.
Thanks, Judy, for your perseverance, patience, and keen eye for detail, which helped me greatly. Of course, thanks to all of you in the industry that I have worked with and learned from over the years—especially my friends and colleagues at the Duke Clinical Research Institute and my old friends at PRA and A.
Finally, thanks to my family, who were entirely supportive of me while I worked on this book. Linda, Chloe, and Alex—I owe you one. OK, I owe you a lot more than one. It is best to begin by describing the environment in which a statistical programmer works in the pharmaceutical industry. Then we explore the fundamental principles that should guide you in your day-to-day work. These principles permeate all of the tasks that you do on a daily basis and, if kept in mind, they will keep you from going astray in your statistical programming duties.
Our industry is full of acronyms, medical terminology, and jargon that you must become familiar with to be an effective statistical programmer.
To assist you in identifying some of these terms, this book italicizes the first occurrence of terminology specific to SAS programming in the pharmaceutical industry.
At the end of the book is a glossary that you can refer to for definitions of these terms. Statistical Programmer Work Description The statistical programmer usually works in the statistics department of a pharmaceutical research and development group or contract research organization CRO. The role of statistical programmers is to use their superior technical and programming skills in order to allow clinical trial statisticians to perform their statistical analysis duties more efficiently.
This may involve importing and exporting data, working with other information technology professionals on site and at other companies, deriving variables and creating analysis data sets, and creating clinical study report CSR materials consisting of tables, figures, and listings TFL. Here is a simplified illustration of the general work processes of the statistical programmer: Import data from disparate sources. Transform data into useful analysis data structures.
Create tables, figures, and listings to support clinical reporting. Export data and reports to sponsor, FDA, and other clients. In the United States, most clinical trials are funded by pharmaceutical companies wanting to bring a new treatment to market or by the National Institutes of Health NIH , which funds research to improve the health of all Americans.
Because the majority of clinical trials are conducted with the idea to bring a new drug or device to market, we will briefly look at the U. Further details about the drug and device approval process can be found at www. Drug Approval Process The FDA is charged with making sure that all new drugs brought to market are both safe and effective. The FDA helps to do this with a drug approval process that can easily cost hundreds of millions of dollars and can take a decade or more to move a drug from discovery to a pharmacy near you.
There are several progressive levels of studies that are conducted as part of the drug approval process. Pre-clinical studies are the experiments that are conducted in the laboratory and with animals long before a new drug is ever introduced for use by humans.
The IND application allows the drug maker to conduct clinical trials of the new compound on human subjects. These studies are usually carried out on small samples of subjects. The idea here is to determine the safety of the drug in a small and usually healthy volunteer study population. Phase 2 trials go beyond phase 1 studies in that they begin to explore the efficacy of a drug.
Phase 2 studies have larger — patients study populations than phase 1 studies and are aimed at narrowing the dose range for the new medication.
Safety is monitored at this stage as well, and phase 2 trials are generally conducted in the target study population. Phase 3 trials are large-scale clinical trials on populations numbering in the hundreds to thousands of patients. These are the critical trials that the drug maker runs to show that its new drug is both safe and efficacious in the target study population. Phase 4 trials, or post-marketing trials, are usually conducted to monitor the long-term safety of a new drug after the drug is already available to consumers.
The device approval process at the FDA varies based on the degree of risk inherent in the device. Class 1 devices carry little risk for the patient; they include devices such as elastic bandages and surgical instruments.
Class 2 devices carry slightly higher risk for the patient; they include such devices as infusion pumps and motorized wheelchairs. Class 3 devices are high-risk devices and thus require the most regulatory scrutiny. Class 3 devices include replacement heart valves and implantable defibrillators. Obviously, the approval requirements for a class 3 device are much higher than for a class 1 device. Clinical Trial Study Designs There are many types of clinical trials, and there are some general trial design concepts that you need to understand.
One key concept is the randomization of study therapy. When you randomly assign patients to study therapy, you reduce potential treatment bias. Another key concept is treatment blinding.
Blinding a patient to treatment means the patient does not know what treatment is being administered. In a single-blind trial, only the patient does not know what treatment is being administered. There are other trial design concepts for you to be aware of. A clinical trial can be carried out at a single site or it can be a multi-center trial.
In a single-site trial all of the patients are seen at the same clinical site, and in a multi-center trial several clinical sites are used. Multi-center trials are needed sometimes to eliminate site-specific bias or because there are more patients required than a single site can enroll.
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SAS Macro Programming Made Easy, Third Edition
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Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. You are in the Canada store Not in Canada? Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! The macro facility is a popular part of SAS. By following Michele Burlew's examples and step-by-step instructions, you'll be able to rapidly perform repetitive programming tasks, to pass information between programming steps more easily, and to make your programming easier to read.
Updated for SAS 9. Beginning macro programmers will learn to write SAS macro programs quickly and efficiently. More experienced programmers will find this book useful to refresh their conceptual knowledge and expand on their macro programming skills.
When you get ready to submit the program, the only changes you make are to the values of the macro variables.
SAS Macro Programming Made Easy Third Edition by Michele M Burlew 9781612906935
After you submit the program, the macro processor looks up the values of month and year that you set and substitutes those values as specified by your macro variable references. The report layout stays the same, but the results are based on a different subset of the data set. Don't worry about understanding the macro language coding at this point.
Just be aware that you can reuse the same program to analyze a different subset of the data set by changing the values of the macro variables. Both features are in bold in the following code. No other editing of the program is required to process this subset. Output 1. The macro facility can be used with most SAS products.
You've seen in the monthly sales report an example of macro programming in Base SAS.
Table 1. It also lists existing macro applications that come with SAS. The following examples of the SAS macro facility illustrate some of the tasks that the macro processor can perform for you.
There's no need to understand the coding of these programs at this point although the code is included and might be useful to you later. What you should gain from this section is an idea of the kinds of SAS programming tasks that you can delegate to the macro processor.
In addition to the examples that follow, Example 1.
A new subset of data is analyzed each time the values of the macro variables are changed. It is relatively easy to create and reference these macro variables. Besides being able to reuse your program code, the advantages in using macro variables include reducing coding time and reducing programming errors by not having to edit so many lines of code. Most of these macro variables deal with system-related items like date, time, operating system, and version of SAS.
Using these automatically defined macro variables is one of the simplest applications of the macro facility. Note that the automatic macro variable names are preceded by ampersands. Assume the report was run on February 20, Macro programs can use macro variables and macro programming statements to select the steps and the SAS language statements that a SAS program should execute.
These conditional processing macro language statements are similar in syntax and structure to SAS language statements. The conditional macro language statements direct the macro processor to run the second PROC step only on Fridays. Assume the program was run on Friday, August 22, Macro language statements start with percent signs, and macro variable references start with ampersands.
Coding each iteration of a programming process that contains multiple iterations can be a lengthy task. Repetitive coding tasks are a breeding ground for bugs in your programs. Thus, turning these tasks over to the macro processor can reduce the number of errors in your SAS programs.
It creates 12 data sets, one for each month of the year. Without macro programming, you would have to enter the 12 data set names in the DATA statement and enter all the ELSE statements that direct observations to the right data set.
A few macro programming statements direct the macro processor to build the complete DATA step for you. With this technique, you can avoid the tedious task of entering all the data set names and all the ELSE statements.
The macro facility can act as a bridge between steps in your SAS programs. The SAS language functions and call routines that interact with the macro facility can transfer information between steps in your SAS programs. The total sales value is then available to subsequent steps in the program. The first SAS program would calculate the total sales for the two sections.
After the first program ends, you find the total sales value in the output. Then, before submitting the second program, you would have to edit the second program and update the TITLE statement with the total sales value that you found in the output from the first program.
Alternatively, you can use PROC SQL to compute the same sum of sales for the software and programming sections and save that sum in a macro variable for use later. SAS has libraries of functions that you can also use in your macro language code. Some uses of these functions include incorporating information about a data set in a title, checking the existence of a data set, and finding the number of observations in a data set.
The SAS language functions are underlined in Example 1. Your work might frequently require that you program the same process in different applications. Rather than rewriting the code every time, you might be able to write the code once and save it in a macro program. Later when you want to execute that code again, you just reference the macro program. With the macro facility, there are ways to save the code in special libraries and even to save the compiled code in permanent locations.
For example, perhaps some of your reports require the same SAS options, titles, and footnotes. You can save these standardizations in a macro program and call the macro program rather than write the statements every time.
You can store macro programs in a special location called an autocall library. Then when you want to submit one of these saved macro programs for compilation and execution during a later SAS session, you only need to tell SAS to look for macro programs in your autocall library, and you do not have to explicitly submit the code in the SAS session.
Further, you could make the library available to your workgroup, and thus your workgroup only needs to maintain single copies of macro programs that you all need to use.Richard Petersen. The macro facility is a popular part of SAS. By following Michele Burlew's examples and step-by-step instructions, you'll be able to rapidly perform repetitive programming tasks, to pass information between programming steps more easily, and to make your programming easier to read.
Neal Goldstein. In a crossover trial, patients switch or change therapy assignments during the course of the trial.